Socio- Psychological factors associated with child sexual abuse: A study of Lusaka Central Prison Child sexual abuse convicts.

  • Zowe Tembo University of Zambia, School of Medicine, Department Of Psychiatry, P.O Box 50110 , Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Dabbie Nabuzoka
  • Ravi Paul
Keywords: convicts, child sexual abuse, DSM_IV criteria checklist, Minnesota Multiphasic personality inventory 4(MMPI_ IV).

Abstract

Objectives and Study Design: with the view of examining the socio-psychological factors associated with child sexual abuse among child sexual abuse convicts, a study was conducted in Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia at Lusaka Central Prison also commonly known as Chimbokaila prison between January 2015 - July 2017. The scientific objectives of this study were to identify the background characteristics of convicts who are in jail for child sexual offenses; to establish the psychological factors associated with child sexual abuse among convicts; to explore the social correlates associated with child sexual abuse among convicts; to explore the social correlates associated with child sexual abuse among convicts and to establish the relationship between experiences of convicts in prison and behavioral intensions with regards to child sexual re-offending. 30 male child sexual abuse convicts were assessed for personality disorders and were interviewed to realize some of the social factors that may be associated with child sexual abuse. Results Results of the DSMI IV criteria checklist showed that 24 respondents did not have a personality disorder while 6 respondents had a personality disorder. From the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality inventory 4 (MMPI- IV) showed that 10 participants had a personality disorder, while 20 participants did not have a personality disorder. Results obtained from social correlates associated with child sexual abuse were: misleading physical appearances and substancemisuse. With regards to marital status, there was no statistical relationship between child sexual abuse and marital status. It was also found that there is no statistical relationship between child sexual abuse and Alcohol consumption. It was also found that the respondents who took alcohol before imprisonment were more than those that did not. Most child sexual perpetrators were not sexually abused as children, those who were sexually abused as children were very few Percent and frequency distribution of Respondents by age group was; age group 25-30 recorded 3 the highest frequency of 36.7%, followed by age group of 20-25 with 23.3%. Percent and frequency distribution of the respondents by marital status; of the total respondents 40 percent (n=12) were single and 46.7 percent (n=14) were married, divorced participants and others had an equal share of percentage at 6.7 percent (n=2). Conclusions: put together the results suggest that the majority of participants did not have a personality disorder, in regards to Psychological factors that may be associated with child sexual abuse. Whereas a lot of common themes (most participants abused alcohol before imprisonment, were physically abused and not sexually abused in their childhood) were realized for social factors that may be associated with child sexual abuse, However for background characteristics it was found that most child sexual abusers were within their mid twenties and most of them were single with a primary level of education as the highest level of education obtained by most participants.

References

Abel, G.G., Lawry, S.S., Karlstrom, E., Osborn, C.A., & Gillespie, C.F. (1994) Screening, 105 -
122.
Abel, G.G., Osborn, C., Anthony, D., and Gardos, P. (1992) Current treatments of paraphiliacs: Annual Review of Sex Research, 225-290.
Available:http://www.americanhumane.org/children/stop-child-abuse/fact-sheets/child-sexual-
abuse.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/ among sexual offenders(24 Aug 2001)
APA, (1994 ) Summary of practice: Relevant changes to the DSM- IV-TR , psycho med.
APA, (2000) Summary of practice : Relevant changes to the DSM-IV-TR, psycho med.
Araji, S. and Finkelhor, D. (1986) Abusers: A review of the research, A Sourcebook on Child
Sexual Abuse, Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
Blaike, N. (2000) Designing Social Research, Cambridge: Polity Press internal .
Blaike, N. (2010) Approaches to Social Enquiry, Cambridge, England : U.K., Polity Press.
Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology: Qualitative Research in
Psychol ogy, vol.3, pp. 77-101.
Briere, J. and Runtz, M. (1989) The Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC-33): Early data on a new
scale, Journal of interpersonal violence, vol. 4, pp. 151-163.
Briere, J. and Malamuth, N.M. (1983) Self-reported likelihood of sexually aggressive behavior:
Attitudinal versus sexual explanations, Joumal of Research in Personality , vol.17, 31 5- 323 Briere, J., Evans, D., Runtz, M. and Wall, T. (1988) Symptomatology in men who were molested
as children: A comparison study, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , vol.58 4 57-461 Bryant, A. and Charmaz, K. (2007) The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory, London,England, U.K: Sage Publications Ltd.
Bryman, A. (2008) Social Research Methods, Oxford: England, UK, Oxford University Press.
Butcher, J.N., Dahlstrom W.G, Graham J.R, Tellegen A. M, Kreammer ,B., (1989) The
17
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Manual for Administration and
Scoring. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minneapolis Press .
Byman, A. (2012) Social research method,Oxford: Oxford University Press
Collin-Vézina, D., Daigneault, I and Hébert, M. (2013) Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and
Mental Health,
Finkelhor, D. & Ormrod, R. (2001) Crimes against children by babysitters: Juvenile.
Finkelhor, D. (1994) The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse: In Child Abuse &
neglect.
Finkelhor, D., Williams, L.M., & Burns, N. (1988) Nursery crimes: Sexual abuse in day care,
Newbury Park, CA; Sage Publication.
Finkhelor, D., David, N. (1984) Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research, New York: Free press.
Fraser, G. and Kilbride, P. (1980) Child abuse and Neglect – rare, but perhaps increasing: phenomenon among the Samia of Kenya, Child Abuse and Neglect, vol.4 pp .227-232.
Fuller, A.K. (1986) Child molestation and pedophilia: An overview for the physician, JAMA, 602-606.
Hall, G. C. N. and Hirschman, R. (1992) Sexual aggression against children: A conceptual perspective of etiology,Criminal Justice and Behaviour,vol. 2
Hanson, R.K. and Harris, A.J.R. (2001) A structures approach to evaluating change.
Lalor, K (2005) Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: Child Protection implications for
Development Policy Makers and Practitioners, Development Research Briefings Centre for
Development Studies: Dublin, University of Dublin.
Lampe, A. (2002) Prevalence of sexual and physical abuse and emotional neglect in Europe:
Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin, pp. 370-380
Laws, D.R. , Marshall, W.L. (2003) A brief history of behavioral and cognitive behavioral approaches to sex offenders: Part 1 Early developments, Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research
and Treatment, vol.2, pp 75-92. Jaffe, A.M. and Roux.k. (1988) Sexual Abuse of Children: A hospital based study',South African
Medical Journal, no.74, pp. 65 - 69
18
Levett, A. (1989) A study of childhood sexual abuse among South African university women students: South African Journal of Psychology, vol.3, pp. 122-129.
Loening, W. (1981) Child abuse among the Zulus: a people in cultural transition, Child Abuse and Neglect pp 3-7.
Madu, S.N. and Peltzer, K. (2000) Risk factors and child sexual abuse among secondary school students in the Northern Province (South Africa): Child Abuse and Neglect, pp. 259-268.
Madu, S.N. & Peltzer, K. (2001) Prevalence and patterns of child sexual abuse and victim- perpetrator relationship among secondary school students in the Northern Province, South
Africa: Archives of Sexual Behaviour, pp. 311-321.
Malawian Ministry of Health (2012) Guidelines for Provision of Comprehensive Services for
Survivors of Physical and Sexual Violence at Health Facilities in Malawi, One Stop Centres.
Marshall, W.L., Barbaree, H.E., and Eccles, A. (1991) Early onset and deviant sexuality in child
molesters : Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol.3 pp. 323-336.
Miles, M. B. and Huberman, A.M. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis, London: Sage.
Moller .A, Bier-Weiss I. (1995) The pedophilic offender: an attempt at perpetrator typology,
Psychiatric Prax, pp. 24-26.
Published
2021-02-16
How to Cite
1.
Tembo Z, Nabuzoka D, Paul R. Socio- Psychological factors associated with child sexual abuse: A study of Lusaka Central Prison Child sexual abuse convicts. Journal of Agricultural and Biomedical Sciences [Internet]. 16Feb.2021 [cited 23Apr.2021];4(4). Available from: https://journals.unza.zm/index.php/JABS/article/view/396
Section
Biomedical Sciences