• Madalitso K. Banja, Dr University of Zambia
  • Gabriel Walubita, Mr University of Zambia
Keywords: Political Songs, Propaganda, Electoral Campaigns, Political Parties


The period of political electioneering is one of the most heated and divisive moments in Zambia’s political landscape. This article draws upon and reports the findings of a qualitative study which collected, interrogated, and using content and discourse analysis, analysed the content of 28 election campaign songs prior to the 2016 Presidential and General Elections. Specifically, the content of 14 pieces from each of the two political parties, which were aligned to the two political heavyweights, Edgar Chagwa Lungu of the ruling Patriotic Front and Hakainde Hichilema of the opposition United Party for National Development, were analysed. The article reveals that the content of the songs supporting various candidates running for political office mixed past achievements, campaign promises with messages focused on personalities such as derision for the opposing political opponent, and hero-worshipping of their preferred candidates. In this context, the songs analysed in this article meet the criteria for typical political election campaign songs according to the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse.

Author Biographies

Madalitso K. Banja, Dr, University of Zambia
Madalitso Khulupirika Banja (PhD) Madalitso Khulupirika Banja (PhD) is a teacher educator at the University of Zambia where he teaches Sociology of Education to both undergraduate and postgraduate students. His major research and scholarly interests are mentorship of newly qualified teachers, professionalism in teaching and school climate (pupil discipline). Banja has authored three books; Support for Newly Qualified Teachers in Africa: Policies, Practices, Challenges and Future Trends (2022), Teachers as Agents of Pupil Indiscipline (2013); and Faith of Many Colours: Reflections on Pentecostal and Charismatic Challenges in Zambia (2009). He has also edited two books, Selected Readings in Education Volume 2 (2019) and Selected Readings in Education (2017) and has also written numerous articles and book chapters on different subjects, but mostly, on mentorship of newly qualified teachers.
Gabriel Walubita, Mr, University of Zambia
Gabriel Walubita is a Special Research Fellow at the University of Zambia, studying for a Doctorate in Child Neuropsychology under the Lolle Nauta foundation scholarship of the Netherlands. He has been teaching Educational Psychology, Special Education and Clinical Child Neuropsychology for over 10 years at the University of Zambia and has published in various international journals and presented papers at several international and local conferences and seminars. His research focuses on how preschool executive functioning skills moderate the relationship between exposure to local digital stories and rhymes and performance on phonological awareness tasks in the Zambian public preschool context. He is currently coordinating departmental activities that relate to special and inclusive education, specifically focusing on children living with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
How to Cite
Banja, M., & Walubita, G. (2022). AN EXPLORATION OF THE CONTENT IN POLITICAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN SONGS:. ZANGO: Zambian Journal of Contemporary Issues, 34(1), 69-82. Retrieved from