Synthesis of Literature: Integrating Disability Models into Non- communicable Diseases and HIV Care
AbstractBackground: The coexistence of NCDs and HIV poses complex healthcare challenges, requiring integrated care models for improved patient outcomes. This paper explores three integrated service models and examines disability models' relevance to better understand the context. Additionally, it discusses the impact of COVID-19 on individuals with NCDs and HIV, further highlighting the need for comprehensive approaches to address existing disparities. Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify and analyze three integrated care models: Model 1 - NCD programs merged with existing HIV support institutions; Model 2 - Incorporating NCD services into established HIV care settings; and Model 3 - Jointly launched HIV and NCD programs. The paper also delves into disability models, including welfare, medical, and educational/social models. Results: The literature review revealed that Model 1 allows for holistic care during single visits, with AMPATH in Kenya showcasing its effectiveness. Model 2 enhances efficiency by integrating NCD services into primary health care systems, while Model 3 presents implementation challenges that need careful consideration. Disability models provide critical insights into the diverse perspectives surrounding disabilities in the context of integrated care. Individuals with NCDs and HIV encountered heightened vulnerability to severe COVID-19 outcomes. Disruptions in healthcare services affected regular medical check-ups and treatments, potentially impacting disease management. The pandemic exacerbated mental health issues, such as anxiety and depression. Moreover, existing disparities were amplified, resulting in limited access to resources and healthcare facilities. Conclusion: The integration of care for individuals with NCDs and HIV necessitates innovative, patient-centered approaches. Model 1, 2, and 3 offer viable solutions, but their successful implementation requires collaboration and addressing contextual challenges. Disability models aid in comprehending the nuances of integrated care, promoting a holistic understanding of disabilities. The COVID-19 pandemic has further underscored the urgency of integrated care and calls for equitable healthcare systems that address existing disparities. By embracing disability models and comprehensive strategies, healthcare providers can create resilient systems to better serve individuals with NCDs and HIV during pandemics and beyond. Keywords: Integration, Non-Communicable Diseases, NCDs, HIV, COVID-19, Healthcare, Disability Models
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