The Role of Christian Churches in Creating Peace and Order in the Face of Confusion in Society

A Case of Kitwe District, Zambia

  • Lewis B. Chilufya Kwame Nkrumah University
  • William Sinkala
  • Simeo Kabwe
Keywords: Gangs, Violence, Crimes, Christian Denominations, Social Values


This article analysed the role that the Christian churches played in combatting violent crimes and promoting peace when Kitwe was terrorised by a group known as the Tokota Boys. Guided by the interpretivism paradigm, it discusses some general perspectives regarding gangs. Furthermore, by using data collected through key interview questions, using a non-probability purposive sampling method, the article describes the activities of the Tokota Boys, and how they negatively affected the lives of Kitwe residents. It also highlights the measures that Christian denominations instituted to combat the impact of this gang as well as to restore peace in the district. In the final thematic analysis, the article concludes that whereas Christian denominations played a part in fighting the gang, their role was limited. This was because their interventions did not fully address the underlying cultural, economic, social and moral factors that were at play in the wake of this this. Thus, in an event of such gang activities, the article recommends mainly that the churches should focus more on fostering social values such as family life, community life, responsibility, respect for life and other fundamental human rights.

Author Biographies

Lewis B. Chilufya, Kwame Nkrumah University
is a university academic with over twenty-two years of lecturing in universities and engaging in various research activities. He holds a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) from the Lateran University (Rome) in Moral Theology with a particular focus on the ethics interstate-armed conflicts and the international laws of war. He has a post-doctoral fellowship in the study of the US foreign policy (Bard College-New York). His other major academic qualifications include a masters/licentiate degree in Moral Theology (Lateran University), a master’s degree in International Relations (Commonwealth Open University - UK), a BA in Theology (Urbaniana University, Rome) as well as a diploma in philosophy (St. Augustine Philosophate - Zambia) and a diploma in Spanish language (University of Salamanca - Spain). He is Associate Professor of International Relations. He is also the author of the books entitled “Just Cause for War: A Legal and Ethical Legacy of the 20th Century” and “Foundations of the Laws of War: A Brief Perspective of Catholic Church”. His research area includes in Political Science, International Relations, Sociology of Religion, Ethics and Human Rights. Presently, he is a senior lecturer in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at Kwame Nkrumah University in Zambia where he previously served as the inaugural Dean for three years (2018-2022).
William Sinkala
is a Zambian Catholic priest belonging to a missionary group of priests called the Society of African Missions (SMA Fathers). He holds a master’s degree in Religious Studies (Kwame Nkrumah University - Zambia). He also obtained a BA in Pastoral Theology from the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA) - Nairobi, Kenya. Other studies include diploma in Theology (Tangaza College - Nairobi, Kenya), diploma in Philosophy (St. Augustine Major Seminary - Zambia) and an intensive course in teaching methodology (Technical and Vocational Teachers College - Zambia). Presently he is the Principal of SMA Tyrone Secondary School - Zambia.
Simeo Kabwe
is a Zambian with diverse academic qualifications, has over 12 years of lecturing experience in universities and institutes. He is engaged in various research, capacity building and Training activities. He holds a Masters from the University of Zambia in Leadership, Peace and Conflict Resolution. His other major academic qualifications include a BA in Theology (Urbaniana University, Rome) as well as a diploma in philosophy (St. Augustine Philosophate - Zambia) and C2 diploma in French language and Culture (Alliance Française - Lyon, France), Diploma in Teaching and Leacturing Methodology (Kwame Nkrumah University, Kabwe), Diploma in Protocol and International Relations, Certificate in Electoral Process Management,and a Certificate in MandE. He has taught French, and Civic Education at Kwame Nkrumah University, and Currently, he is a lecturer of Diplomatic Leadership, Negotiation, Conflict and Mediation and French at Zambia Institute for Diploamcy and International Studies (ZIDIS). He is also working as a District Voter Education Trainer (DVET) for Electoral Commission of Zambia, Ndola District, Zambia.