Pathological and microbiological diagnosis of cutaneous blastomycosis in a four months old dog in Zambia

  • Dr. John Yabe University of Namibia
  • Dr. Caesar Luswili Cornerstone Veterinary Clinic
  • Prof. Bernard M. Hang’ombe University of Zambia
  • Dr. Katendi Changula University of Zambia
  • Dr. Daniel Ndambasia University of Zambia
  • Mutinta Mweemba-Muwowo University of Zambia
  • Dr. Maron Mubanga University of Zambia
  • Evans Mulenga University of Zambia
Keywords: Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cutaneous, Dog, Zambia

Abstract

Background: Blastomycosis is usually a systemic fungal disease, most commonly diagnosed in dogs and humans. Cutaneous involvement primarily results from hematogenous spread, but in rare cases, direct inoculation can occur. Case presentation: The current report describes a case of a four month old male dog presented with cutaneous lesions caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis without pulmonary or disseminated disease. Diagnosis was achieved through histopathology and culture. Surgical debulking associated with systemic therapy with oral itraconazole resulted in significant remission of the lesion. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of cutaneous blastomycosis reported in an animal in Zambia. Conclusions: Accurate diagnosis of the disease in dogs is of public health importance as canine blastomycosis can be a presage of the disease in humans.

References

1. Khuu, D., S. Shafir, B. Bristow and F. Sorvillo, 2014. Blastomycosis mortality rates, United States, 1990-2010. Emerg, Infect. Dis., 11: 1789-1794.
2. Legendre, A.M., B.W. Rohrbach, R.L. Toal, M.G. Rinaldi, L.L. Grace and J.B. Jones, 1996. Treatment of blastomycosis with itraconazole in 112 dogs. J. Vet. Intern. Med., 10: 365-371.
3. Lloret, A., K. Hartmann, M.G. Pennisi, L. Ferrer, D. Addie, S. Belák, C. Boucraut-Baralon, H. Egberink, T. Frymus, T. Gruffydd-Jones, M.J. Hosie, H. Lutz, F. Marsilio, K. Möst, A.D. Radford, E. Thiry, U. Truyen and M.C. Horzinek, 2013. Rare systemic mycoses in cats: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J. Feline Med. Surg., 15: 624-627.
4. Wilson, J.H., 2014. Blastomycosis in horses. Equine Vet. Edu., 26:464-466.
5. Chester, E.M., R.C. Axtell and G.M. Scalarone, 2003. Blastomyces dermatitidis lysate antigens: antibody detection in serial serum specimens from dogs with blastomycosis. Mycopathologia, 156: 289-294.
6. Proctor, M.E., B.S. Klein, J.M. Jones and J.P. Davis, 2001. Cluster of pulmonary blastomycosis in a rural community: evidence for multiple high-risk environmental foci following a sustained period of diminished precipitation. Mycopathologia, 153: 113-120.
7. Saccente, M. and G.L. Woods, 2010. Clinical and laboratory update on blastomycosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 23: 367-381.
8. Marcellin-Little, D.J., R.K. Sellon, A.E. Kyles, C.L. Lemons and L. Kaufman, 1996. Chronic localized osteomyelitis caused by atypical infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis in a dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 209: 1877-1879.
9. Gray, N.A. and L.M. Baddour, 2002. Cutaneous inoculation blastomycosis. Clin. Infect. Dis., 34: e44-e49.
10. Bromel, C. and J.E. Sykes, 2005. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of blastomycosis in dogs and cats. Clin. Tech. Small Anim. Pract., 20: 233-239.
11. Guarner, J. and M.E. Brandt, 2011. Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal infections in the 21st century. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 24: 247-280.
12. McCullough, M.J., A.F. DiSalvo, K.V. Clemons, P Park and D.A. Stevens, 2000. Molecular epidemiology of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Clin. Infect. Dis., 30: 328-335.
13. Carman, W.F., J.A. Frean, H.H. Crewe-Brown, G.A. Culligan C.N. Young, 1989. Blastomycosis in Africa. A review of known cases diagnosed between 1951 and 1987. Mycopathologia, 107: 25-32.
14. Baily, G.G., V.J. Robertson, P. Neill, P. Garrido and L.F. Levy, 1991. Blastomycosis in Africa: clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. Rev. Infect. Dis., 13: 1005-1008.
15. Bhagwandeen, S.B., 1974. North American blastomycosis in Zambia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 23: 231-234.
16. Rudmann, D.G., B.R. Coolman, C.M. Perez and L.T. Glickman, 1992. Evaluation of risk factors for blastomycosis in dogs: 857 cases (1980-1990). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 201: 1754-1759.
17. Nosanchuk, J.D., D. van Duin, P. Mandal, P. Aisen, A.M. Legendre and A. Casadevall, 2004. Blastomyces dermatitidis produces melanin in vitro and during infection. FEMS. Microbiol. Lett., 239: 187-193.
18. Sarosi, G.A., M.R. Eckman, S.F. Davies and W.K. Laskey, 1979. Canine blastomycosis as a harbinger of human disease. Ann. Intern. Med., 91: 733-735.
19. Klein, B.S., J.M. Vergeront, A.F. DiSalvo, L. Kaufman and J.P. Davis, 1987. Two outbreaks of blastomycosis along rivers in Wisconsin: isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis from riverbank soil and evidence of its transmission along waterways. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 136: 1333-1338.
Published
2022-07-05
How to Cite
1.
Yabe DJ, Luswili DC, Hang’ombe PB, Changula DK, Ndambasia DD, Mweemba-Muwowo M, Mubanga DM, Mulenga E. Pathological and microbiological diagnosis of cutaneous blastomycosis in a four months old dog in Zambia. University of Zambia Journal of Agricultural and Biomedical Sciences [Internet]. 5Jul.2022 [cited 2Oct.2022];5(4). Available from: https://journals.unza.zm/index.php/JABS/article/view/755
Section
Veterinary Medicine

Most read articles by the same author(s)