A cross-sectional study on socio-ecological and socio-anthropological determinants of COVID-19 in Lusaka Province of Zambia

  • Alyce Fri Fonchin University of Zambia
  • Chisoni Mumba The University of Zambia
  • Linda Basikolo The University of Zambia
  • Simegnew Adugna Kallu The University of Zambia
  • Henson Kainga The University of Zambia
  • Jezreel Mwiinde The University of Zambia
  • Vistorina Benhard The University of Zambia
  • John Bwalya Muma The University of Zambia
  • Musso Munyeme The University of Zambia
Keywords: Anthropological, COVID-19, Ecological, Lusaka


The COVID-19 disease constitutes a pandemic that has created an international public health emergency. Besides the significant health challenges, the impact of the COVID-19 disease has been the restriction of movements that have heavily affected the global economy. The first case of COVID-19 in Zambia was identified on March 18th, 2020. By the end of November 2020, the number of districts reporting COVID-19 infections had increased from 68 to 96, with reports of the highest transmission in the capital city, Lusaka, the Copperbelt, and Ndola districts. As COVID-19 spread across the nation of Zambia, several factors are responsible for the spread of the virus. Despite the extensive collection of research done on determinants of COVID-19 disease, the spatial distribution of the disease along socio-demographical and socio- ecological domains remains speculative and infectious diseases have been less looked into in the areas of anthropological dynamics. This study used a cross-sectional design to investigate the ecological and anthropological determinants of COVID-19 disease in four compounds in the Lusaka district of Zambia. A guided questionnaire was used to collect data from 301 participants. A descriptive analysis of all independent variables was done. Analysis for associations of dependent and independent variables and multivariate analysis of the independent variables significant at the bi-variate level was conducted to investigate the association between the dependent variable (Knowledge of anyone infected with COVID-19 virus) and the independent variables. The bi-variate analysis results showed that 14 independent variables with odds ratios greater than one were significantly associated with the spread of COVID-19. Two variables were found to be highly significant in the multivariable logistic regression analysis model. These included beliefs about COVID-19 (odds = 3.0; p = 0.003; CI 1.2-3.3), and participants area of residence (odds = 2.6; p = 0.003; CI = 1.2-5.5). Other significant multivariate variables were ecological variable; climate and anthropological variables; hand hygienic practices. The current research provides further insight into the potential role ecology and anthropology contribute to the spread of communicable diseases. The study recommends awareness of the population to enhance preparedness and response to reduce the spread of COVID-19.


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How to Cite
Fonchin A, Mumba C, Basikolo L, Kallu S, Kainga H, Mwiinde J, Benhard V, Muma J, Munyeme M. A cross-sectional study on socio-ecological and socio-anthropological determinants of COVID-19 in Lusaka Province of Zambia. University of Zambia Journal of Agricultural and Biomedical Sciences [Internet]. 28Sep.2022 [cited 29Nov.2022];6(1). Available from: https://journals.unza.zm/index.php/JABS/article/view/798

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