Siwale et. all 2019 Determining blood glucose lowering effects of leaf extracts of Cleome gynandra, Amaranthus cruentus and their mixture in Normoglycaemic and Hyperglycaemic (Alloxan-diabetic) rats.

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Keywords: Alloxan Diabetes, Ethanolic Leaf Extracts, Amaranthus Cruentus (AC), Cleome gynandra (CG), Rattus Novergius


Background: Normal blood glucose is maintained in the range 3.5 – 8.0 mmol/L. However, abnormally high blood glucose is characteristic of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both.
Objective: The present study was conducted to assess blood glucose lowering effects of ethanolic leaf extracts of Cleome gynandra (CG), Amaranthus cruentus (AC) and their mixture (1:1 ratio) in Normoglycaemic and Alloxan-diabetic rats.
Methods: The study was an in vivo experimental study using the rat model. The crude drugs were extracted from the leaves of AC and CG by maceration and formulated into 3 dose levels (200, 400 and 600 mg/Kg BW). Normal saline (0.9%) and Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg BW) were used as control and reference drug respectively. The crude drugs were administered orally to normoglycaemic and alloxan diabetic rats to assess glucose lowering effect. Data was analyzed by Students `t’ test and one way ANOVA in order to make quantitative conclusion of the study.
Results: Extracts of AC, CG and their mixture produced maximum reduction in FBG of 30%, 35.4% and 26.1% respectively in normal rats after 6 hours. Glibenclamide produced maximum hypoglycemic effect of 50% after 4 hours (2.8 ± 0.09 to 1.6± 0.05) and only 2 % reduction in FBG was observed in the control group. Similarly, in diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly lowered as compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). Mean RBG was lower in the experimental compared to diabetic control group at day 10 (17.6±1.61 Vs. 28.8 ± 0.23 mmol/L, p <0.05). The leaf extracts seem to act via extra-pancreatic mechanisms.
Conclusion: Ethanolic leaf extracts had glucose lowering effects in normal and diabetic rats. The Leaf extracts seem to act via extra pancreatic mechanisms.