Ndashe et al., 2018 Measles Viruses in Zambia: A Review on Circulating Wild-type Genotypes, Complications with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Control (2006-2016).
Measles is a highly contagious disease that most commonly affects children. The disease continues to record morbidity and mortality among infants in Zambia. We searched online databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and ISI Web of Science and critically reviewed appropriate publications to extract consistent findings, the wild-type MeV present in Zambia, the complications of Measles and the Human immunodeficiency Virus and the control of Measles in Zambia. We included 18 research articles and 2 epidemiological bulletins in the synthesis. From the search of the NCBI database a total of 80 nucleotide sequences of 48 MeV isolates were obtained, 34 sequences (25 MeV isolates) from Zambia and 46 sequences (23 MeV isolates) WHO reference strains. Out of the 34 sequences from Zambia, 9 and 25 were H-gene and N-gene nucleotide sequences, respectively. This study identified 3 MeV genotypes in Zambia (B2, B3 and D2) spatially distributed in Lusaka, Ndola, Kitwe, Mwense and Samfya. Infants born from women who are HIV-1 seropositive had lower maternal antibodies and post initial vaccination antibodies to measles in HIV-1-infected infants waned off rapidly. The review re-emphasized the need for supplemental immunisation activities which include second opportunity to immunisation and case-based surveillance.