Chongo et al., 2016 Use of the ICF in Measuring Performance of Basic Activities of Daily Living in People living with HIV/AIDS in Two Selected Home Based Care Programmes in Lusaka, Zambia.
Introduction: The increase of access to antiretroviral therapy has led to prolongation of life among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Home based care is cost effective and convenient in managing HIV/AIDS. High prevalence of activity limiting symptoms has been reported in HIV/AIDS, but the level of performance of basic activities of daily has not been done in home based care programs in Zambia. The aim of this study was to measure the performance of basic activities of living in the Physiotherapy in Palliative Care Programme (PPCP) and Archdiocese of Lusaka (AL).
Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study design was carried out in PPCP and AL in Lusaka, Zambia. A total of 512 participants were recruited for the study and 481 questionnaires were returned, while 430 were eligible for analysis with two equal samples for each program. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used to
measure the severity of symptoms and level of performance of mobility and self-care. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. The student t test was used to determine whether performance was significantly different between the two programs.
Results: There were more females (69%) than males (31%) with an age range of 18 to 65 years (mean age: 40.56; SD=10.14). The majority of participants were single (57%) and 43% were married. The mean number of months on HBC was 36.87 (SD=23.93) for PPCP and 45.00 (SD=32.67) for AL participants. The mean number of months on ARVs was 45.93 (SD=26.02)
for PPCP and 43.27 (SD=28.43) for AL participants. Pain was the most common symptom (69.5%) accounting for 72% in PPCP and 67% in AL. Other common symptoms were general fatigue (60.5%), numbness and tingling (55%) and tiring easily (53%). Participants scored 42.9% and 29.5% for mobility and 57.2and 26.0% for self-care in PPCP and AL respectively. The overall performance of BADLs had a similar pattern (45.8% and 31.9%) and age and severity of symptoms significantly increased limitations in BADL.
Conclusion: People living with HIV/AIDS experience a lot of pain and problems in performing basic activities of daily living. Physiotherapy may help to improve performance in self-care activities. Increase in age and severity of symptoms can significantly increase limitations in BADL. There is need to research further using bigger sample and interventional studies. The ICF has proven to be a useful tool for PLWHA in Zambia.